26th OCTOBER 2015 KOJAGIRI/KUMAR PURNIMA -WARBETWEEN SWAMY KATIKEYA (MURUGAN) & DEMON TARAKASUR

Kartikeya

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“Muruga” redirects here. For the 2007 film, see Muruga (film).
For the 2014 film, see Karthikeya (film).
Murugan
Kartikeya
Subramaniyan
Hindu God of war and victory,
Commander of the Gods
Murugan by Raja Ravi Varma.jpg

Murugan with his wives by Raja Ravi Varma
TamilTransliteration முருகன்
கார்த்திகேயன்
சுப்பிரமணியன்
Affiliation Deva
Abode Arupadaiveedu (Six Abodes of Murugan), Skandaloka
Mantra oṃ śaravaṇa bhavāya namaḥ
Weapon Vel, Bow and arrow
Consort Devasena and Valli
Mount Peacock

Kartikeya (Sanskrit Kārtikēya “son of KṛttikāTamil: Kārttikēyaṉ) (/ˌkɑrtɪˈkjə/), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumaran, Kumara Swami and Subramaniyan is the Hindu god of war. He is the Commander-in-Chief of the army of the devas and the son of Shiva and Parvati.

Murugan (Tamil Murukaṉ) is often referred to as Tamiḻ kaṭavuḷ (“god of the Tamils“) and is worshiped primarily in areas with Tamil influences, especially South India, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singaporeand Réunion. His six most important shrines in India are the Six Abodes of Murugan, temples located in Tamil Nadu.

In Bengal, Odisha and Maharashtra, he is popularly known as Kartikeya.[1]

Other names[edit]

The several names of Murugan of Tamil origin would include the following, Seyon, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Kumāran (“prince, child, young one”), Svaminatha (“smart, clever”), Saravaṇa, Arumugam or Shanmuga (“having six faces”),[2] Dandapani (“god with a club“), Guhan or Guruguha (“cave-dweller”), Subrahmanya, Kartikeya and Skanda “attacker”.[3][4] He was also known as Mahasena and the Kadamba dynasty worshiped him by this name.[5]

Historical development[edit]

Sangam Tamil literature[edit]

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Thiruppugazh – Umbartharu

The Tolkāppiyam, possibly the most ancient of the Tamil literature, mentions Ceyyavaṉ “the red one”, who is identified with Murugan, whose name is literally Murukaṉ “the youth”; the three other gods referred in theTolkāppiyam are Māyavaṉ “the dark one” (identified with Vishnu), Vēntaṉ “the sovereign” (identified with Indra) and Koṟṟavai “the victorious” (identified with Kali). Extant Sangam literature works, dated between the third century BCE and the fifth century CE glorified Murugan, “the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent,” as “the favoured god of the Tamils.”[6] The Sangam poetry divided space and Tamil land into five allegorical areas (tinai) and. according to the Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai ( c. 400–450), attributed to the great Sangam poet Nakkirar, Murugan was the presiding deity of the kuṟiñci (hilly tracts). TheTirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai is a deeply devotional poem included in the Pattuppāṭṭu “ten idyls” of the age of the third Sangam. In the Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai, he is described as a god of eternal youth: “His face shines a myriad rays light and removes the darkness from this world”.[7]

Other Sangam period works in Tamil that refer to Murugan in detail include the Paripāṭal, the Akanaṉūṟu and the Purananuru.[citation needed]

Vedic and Puranic literature[edit]

The Atharvaveda calls Kumāra Agnibhū because he is form of Agni, who held him in his hands when Kumāra was born. The Shatapatha Brahmana refers to him as the son of Rudra and the six faces of Rudra. TheTaittiriya Aranyaka contains the Gayatri Mantra for Shanmukha. The Chandogya Upanishad refers to Skanda as the “way that leads to wisdom”. Baudhāyana’s Dharmasūtra calls Skanda Mahāsena “Having a Great Army” and Subrahmaṇya “beloved of Brahmins”. The āraṇyaparvan (first section of the third book) of the Mahabharata relates the legend of Kartikeya Skanda in considerable detail. The Skanda Purana is devoted to the narrative of Kartikeya.[8] The Upanishads also constantly make a reference to a Supreme Being called Guha, the indweller.

Hindu epics[edit]

Indra gives Devasena as wife to Kartikeya; scene from the Mahabharata.

The first elaborate account of Kartikeya’s origin occurs in the Mahabharata. In a complicated story, he is said to have been born from Agni and Svaha, after the latter impersonated the six of the seven wives of theSaptarishi (Seven Sages). The actual wives then become the Pleiades. Kartikeya is said to have been born to destroy a buffalo demon (mahishasura).[9] In later mythology, the buffalo demon became the adversary ofDurga.

Indra attacks Kartikeya as he sees the latter as a threat until Shiva intervenes and makes Kartikeya the commander-in-chief of the army of the Devas. He is also married to Devasena, Indra’s daughter. The origin of this marriage lies probably in the punning of ‘Deva-sena-pati’. It can mean either lord of Devasena or Lord of the army (sena) of Devas. But according to Anandamurti, in his master work on Shiva[10] and other works, Kartikeya was married to Devasenā and that is on the ground of his name as Devasena’s husband, Devasenāpati, misinterpreted as Deva-senāpati (Deva’s general) that he was granted the title general and made the Deva’s army general.[11]

The Ramayana version is closer to the stories told in the Puranas below.

References to Murugan can be traced back to the first millennium BCE. There are references to Murugan in Kautilya’s Arthashastra, in the works of Patanjali, in Kalidasa’s epic poem the Kumārasambhava. The Kushan Empire, which governed from what is today Peshawar, and the Yaudheyas, a confederation in the Punjab region, struck coins bearing the image of Skanda. The deity was venerated also by the Ikshvakus, an Andhradynasty, and the Gupta Empire.[8] The worship of Kumāra was one of the six principal sects of Hinduism at the time of Adi Shankara. The Shanmata system propagated by him included this sect. In many Shiva and Devi temples of Tamil Nadu, Murugan is installed on the left of the main deity. The story of His birth goes as follows:

Sati immolated herself in a pyre as her father King Daksha had insulted Shiva, her Lord. She was reborn as Parvathi or Uma, daughter of the King of Himalayas, Himavan. She then married her Lord Shiva. The Devas were under onslaught from the Asuras whose leader was Soorapadman. He had been granted boons that only Lord Shiva or his seed could kill him. Fearless he vanquished the Devas and made them his slaves. The Devas ran to Vishnu for help who told them that it was merely their fault for attending Daksha’s yagna, without the presence of Lord Shiva. After this, they ran to Shiva for help. Shiva decided to take action against Soorapadman’s increasing conceit. He frowned and his third eye- the eye of knowledge- started releasing sparks. There were six sparks in total. Agni had the responsibility to take them to Saravana Lake. As he was carrying them, the sparks were growing hotter and hotter that even the Lord of Fire could not withstand the heat. Soon after Murugan was born on a lotus in the Saravana Lake with six faces, giving him the name Arumukan. Lord Shiva and Parvati visited and tears of joy started flowing as they witnessed the most handsome child. Shiva and Parvathi gave the responsibility of taking care of Muruga to the six Krittika sisters. Muruga grew up to be a handsome, intelligent, powerful, clever youth. All the Devas applauded at their saviour, who had finally come to release them from their woes. Murugan became the supreme general of the demi-gods, then escorted the devas and led the army of the devas to victory against the asuras.[citation needed]

Puranas[edit]

Kartikeya (right), Ganesha, Shiva, and Parvati.

Though slightly varying versions occur in the Puranas, they broadly follow the same pattern. By this period, the identification of Shiva/Rudra with Agni, that can be traced back to the Vedas and Brahmanas, had clearly made Kartikeya the son of Shiva.[citation needed]

The Skanda Purana narrates that Shiva first wed Dakshayani (also named Sati), the first incarnation of Adi Shakthi the granddaughter of Brahma, and the daughter of Daksha. Daksha was a Vishnu devotee and never liked Shiva, who symbolized destruction of evil, detachment, and who lives a simple life . Daksha publicly insults Shiva in a Yagna ceremony, and Dakshayani immolates herself. The Yagna is destroyed by Shiva’s avatar Virabhadra. Virabhadra broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha’s head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; then he returned to Kailash.Taraka believed that, because Shiva is an ascetic and his earlier marriage was conducted with great difficulty, his remarriage was out of the question, hence his boon of being killed by Shiva’s son alone would give him invincibility.

The Devas manage to get Shiva married to Parvati (who was Dakshayani, reborn), by making Manmatha (also known as Kama), the God of love awaken him from his penance, but Manmatha incurred the Lord’s wrath indicated by the opening his third eye – “Netri Kann”, and being destroyed and resurrected. Shiva hands over his effulgence of the third eye used to destroy Manmatha to Agni, as he alone is capable of handling it until it becomes the desired offspring. But even Agni, tortured by its heat, hands it over to Ganga who in turn deposits it in a lake in a forest of reeds (sharavanam). Then Goddess Parvati, took the form of this water body as she alone is capable of taming the Tejas of Shiva, her consort. . The child is finally born in this forest (vana) with six faces: eesanam, Tathpurusham, vamadevam, agoram, sathyojatham and adhomugam. He is first spotted and cared for by six women representing the Pleiades — Kritika in Sanskrit. He thus gets named Kartikeya. As a young lad, he destroys Tarakasur. He is also called Kumara (Tamil and Sanskrit for “youth”).

Legends[edit]

Goddess Skandamata with son Skanda or Kartikeya on her lap, is worshipped as fifth form of Navadurga.

Given that legends related to Murugan are recounted separately in several Hindu epics, some differences between the various versions are observed. Some Sanskrit epics and puranas indicate that he was the elder son of Shiva. This is suggested by the legend connected to his birth; the wedding of Shiva and Parvati being necessary for the birth of a child who would vanquish the asura named Taraka. Also, Kartikeya is seen helping Shiva fight the newborn Ganesha, Shiva’s other son, in the Shiva Purana. In the Ganapati Khandam of the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, he is seen as the elder son of Shiva and Ganesha as the younger. In South India, it is believed that he is the younger of the two. A Puranic story has Ganesha obtain a divine fruit of knowledge from Narada winning a contest with Murugan. While Murugan speeds around the world thrice to win the contest for the fruit, Ganesha circumambulates Shiva and Parvati thrice as an equivalent and is given the fruit. After winning it, he offers to give the fruit to his upset brother. After this event, Ganesha was considered the elder brother owing as a tribute to his wisdom. Many of the major events in Murugan’s life take place during his youth, and legends surrounding his birth are popular. This has encouraged the worship of Murugan as a child-God, very similar to the worship of the child Krishna in north India. He is married to two wives, Valli and Devasena. This led to a very interesting name : Devasenapati viz. Pati (husband) of Devsena and/or Senapati (commander in chief) of Dev (gods).

Symbolism[edit]

Kartikeya, by Surendra Nath Ganguly, circa 1913

Sculpture of the god Skanda, fromKannauj, North India, circa 8th century.

Kartikeya symbols are based on the weapons – Vel, the Divine Spear or Lance that he carries and his mount the peacock. He is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear. This symbolizes his purification of human ills. His javelin is used to symbolize his far reaching protection, his discus symbolizes his knowledge of the truth, his mace represents his strength and his bow shows his ability to defeat all ills. His peacock mount symbolizes his destruction of the ego. His six heads represent the six siddhis bestowed upon yogis over the course of their spiritual development. This corresponds to his role as the bestower of siddhis.

Regions of worship[edit]

South India[edit]

Murugan is often referred to as “Tamil Kadavul” “God of the Tamils” and is worshiped primarily in areas with Tamil influences. Subramanya is also a major deity among the Hindus of northern Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telengana. Rituals like nagaradhane are unique to Uttara Kannada region of Karnataka.

Tamil Nadu[edit]

In Tamil Nadu, Murugan has continued to be popular with all classes of society right since the Sangam age. This has led to more elaborate accounts of his mythology in the Tamil language, culminating in the Tamil version of Skanda Purana, called Kandha Purānam, written by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar (1350–1420 AD.) of Kumara Kottam in the city ofKanchipuram. (He was a scholar in Tamil literature, and a votary of the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy) He is married to two deities, Valli, a daughter of a tribal chief and Deivayanai (also called Devasena), the daughter of Indhra. During His bachelorhood, Lord Murugan is also regarded as Kumaraswami (or Bachelor God), Kumara meaning a bachelor and Swamimeaning God. Muruga rides a peacock and wields a bow in battle. The lance called Vel in Tamil is a weapon closely associated with him. The Vel was given to him by his mother, Parvati, and embodies her energy and power. His army’s standard depicts a rooster. In the war, Surapadman was split into two, and each half was granted a boon by Murugan. The halves, thus turned into the peacock (his mount) and the rooster his flag, which also “refers to the sun”.[12]

As Muruga is worshipped predominantly in Tamil Nadu, many of his names are of Tamil origin. These include Senthil, the red or formidable one; Arumugam, the six-faced one; Guhanand Maal-Marugan, the son-in-law of Vishnu. Murugan is venerated throughout the Tamil year. There is a six-day period of fast and prayer in the Tamil month of Aippasi known as the Skanda Shasti. He is worshipped at Thaipusam, celebrated by Tamil communities worldwide near the full moon of the Tamil month Thai. This commemorates the day he was given a Velor lance by his mother in order to vanquish the asuras. Thirukarthigai or the full moon of the Tamil month of Karthigai signifies his birth. Each Tuesday of the Tamil month of Adi is also dedicated to the worship of Murugan. Tuesday in the Hindu tradition connotes Mangala, the god of planet Mars and war.

West Bengal[edit]

Kartikeya worshipped in Durga Pujain Kolkata

Kartikeya also known as Kartik or Kartika is also worshipped in West Bengal, and Bangladesh on the last day of the Hindu month of ‘Kartik‘. However, the popularity of Kartik Puja (worshipping Kartik) is decreasing now, and Kartikeya is primarily worshipped among those who intend to have a son. In Bengal, traditionally, many people drop images of Kartik inside the boundaries of different households, who all are either newly married, or else, intend to get a son to carry on with their ancestry. Lord Kartik is also associated to the Babu Culture prevailed in historic Kolkata, and hence, many traditional old Bengali paintings still show Kartik dressed in traditional Bengali style. Also, in some parts of West Bengal, Kartik is traditionally worshipped by the ancestors of the past royal families too, as in the district ofMalda. In Bansberia (Hooghly district) Kartik Puja festival is celebrated like Durga puja of Kolkata, Jagadhatri puja in Chandannagar for consecutive four days. The festival starts on 17 November every year and on 16 November in case of Leap year.[13] Some of the must see Puja committees are Bansberia Kundugoli Nataraj, Khamarapara Milan Samity RadhaKrishna, Kishor Bahini, Mitali Sangha, Yuva Sangha, Bansberia Pratap Sangha and many more. In Durga Puja in Bengal, Kartikeya is considered to be a son of Parvati or Durga and Shiva along with his brother Ganesha.[14]

Odisha[edit]

Kartikeya in Kartik Puja, Odisha.

Kumara Purnima, which is celebrated on the full moon day after Vijayadashami, is one of the popular festival dedicated to Kartikeya in Odisha.It is believed that unmarried girls worship Kartikeya on this day to get grooms handsome as Kartikeya.[15] Kartikeya is worshiped during Durga Puja in Odisha as well as in various Shiva temples throughout the year. Kartik puja is celebrated in Cuttack along with various other parts of the state during the last phases of Hindu month of Kartik. Kartik purnima is celebrated with much joy and in a grand fashion in Cuttack, Jamadhar, Rekabibajar of Jajpur District and other parts in the state.

Other Parts[edit]

Kartikeya Swami or locally called the Devta “Kelang Wazir” is worshipped near parts of Bharmour as their main deity at Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. Situated at Kugti Village, which is 10-14 km from Bharmour is the major deity of the tribe Gaddi. The temple of Kartikeya Swami is visited every year by thousands of devotees when the trek is opened in the month of March-April.(Covered with snow in the winters)

Kartikeya mounted on a peacock. Indian painting from 1875

Historically, Kartikeya was immensely popular in the Indian subcontinent. One of the major Puranas, the Skanda Purana is dedicated to him. In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 24),Krishna, while explaining his omnipresence, names the most perfect being, mortal or divine, in each of several categories. While doing so, he says: “Among generals, I am Skanda, the lord of war.”

Kartikeya’s presence in the religious and cultural sphere can be seen at least from the Gupta age. Two of the Gupta kings, Kumaragupta and Skandagupta, were named after him. He is seen in the Gupta sculptures and in the temples of Ellora and Elephants. As the commander of the divine armies, he became the patron of the ruling classes. His youth, beauty and bravery was much celebrated in Sanskrit works like the Kathasaritsagara. Kalidasamade the birth of Kumara the subject of a lyrical epic, the Kumaarasambhavam. In ancient India, Kartikeya was also regarded as the patron deity of thieves, as may be inferred from the Mrichchakatikam, a Sanskrit play byShudraka, and in the Vetala-panchvimshati, a medieval collection of tales. This association is linked to the fact that Kartikeya had dug through the Krauncha mountain to kill Taraka and his brothers (in the Mrichchakatikam, Sarivilaka prays to him before tunnelling into the hero’s house).

However, Kartikeya’s popularity in North India receded from the Middle Ages onwards, and his worship is today virtually unknown except in parts of Haryana. There is a very famous temple dedicated to Him in the town ofPehowa in Haryana and this temple is very well known in the adjoining areas, especially because women are not allowed anywhere close to it. Women stay away from this temple in Pehowa town of Haryana because this shrine celebrates the Brahmachari form of Kartikeya. Reminders of former devotions to him include a temple at Achaleshwar, near Batala in Punjab, and another temple of Skanda atop the Parvati hill in Pune, Maharashtra. There is also a popular temple of Kartikeya called Kartik Swami Mandir in the Panchavati region of Nashik, Maharashtra. In Maharashtra too, women don’t visit Kartik swami temple.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Murugan is adored by both Tamil Hindus and Sinhalese Buddhists in Sri Lanka. Numerous temples exist throughout the island. He is a favorite deity of the common folk everywhere and it is said he never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon. In the deeply Sinhalese south of Sri Lanka, Murugan is worshipped at the temple in Katirkāmam, where he is known as Kathiravel or Katragama Deviyo (Lord of Katragama). This temple is next to an old Buddhist place of worship. Local legend holds that Lord Murugan alighted in Kataragama and was smitten by Valli, one of the local aboriginal lasses. After a courtship, they were married. This event is taken to signify that Lord Murugan is accessible to all who worship and love him, regardless of their birth or heritage. The Nallur Kandaswamy temple, the Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple and the Sella Channithy Temple near Valvettiturai are the three foremost Murugan temples in Jaffna. The Chitravelayutha temple in Verukal on the border between Trincomalee and Batticaloa is also noteworthy as is the Mandur Kandaswamy temple in Batticaloa. The late medieval-era temple of the tooth in Kandy, dedicated to the tooth relic of the Buddha, has a Kataragama deiyo shrine adjacent to it dedicated to the veneration of Skanda in the Sinhalese tradition. Almost all buddhist temples house a shrine room for Kataragama deviyo (Murugan) reflecting the significance of Murugan in Sinhala Buddhism,

Based on archeological evidence found, it is believed that the Kiri Vehera was either renovated to build during the 1st century BCE. There are number of others inscriptions and ruins.[16]

By the 16th century the Kathiravel shrine at Katirkāmam had become synonymous with Skanda-Kumara who was a guardian deity of Sinhala Buddhism.[17] The town was popular as a place of pilgrimage for Hindus from India and Sri Lanka by the 15 the century. The popularity of the deity at the Kataragama temple was also recorded by the Pali chronicles of Thailand such as Jinkalmali in the 16th century. There are number of legends both Buddhist and Hindu that attribute supernatural events to the very locality.[17]Scholars such as Paul Younger and Heinz Bechert speculate that rituals practiced by the native priests of Kataragama temple betray Vedda ideals of propitiation. Hence they believe the area was of Vedda veneration that was taken over by the Buddhist and Hindus in the medieval period.[18]

Malaysia[edit]

Lord Murugan is one of the most important deities worshipped by the Tamil Hindus in Malaysia and other South-East Asian countries such as Singapore and Indonesia. Thaipoosam is one of the important festivals celebrated. Sri Subramanyar Temple at Batu Caves temple complex in Malaysia is dedicated to Lord Murugan.

Murugan Temples[edit]

The main temples of Murugan are located in Tamil Nadu and other parts of south India. They include the Aru Padaiveedu (six abodes) — Thiruchendur, Swamimalai, Pazhamudircholai, Thirupparangunram, Palani (Pazhani),Thiruthani and other important shrines like Mayilam, Sikkal, Marudamalai, Kundrathur, Vadapalani, Kandakottam, Thiruporur, Vallakottai, Vayalur, Thirumalaikoil, Chennimalai, Sivanmalai, Pachaimalai and Pavalamalai nearGobichettipalayam. Malai Mandir, a prominent and popular temple complex in Delhi, is one of the few dedicated to Murugan in all of North India apart from the Pehowa temple in Haryana.

Murugan represented as Aarumugam (sixfaced)

There are many temples dedicated to Lord Subramanya in Kerala. Amongst them are Atiyambur Sri Subramanya Temple in Kanhangad Kasaragod, Payyannur Subramanya Swamy temple in Payyanur, Panmana Subramanya Swamy temple in Panmana and the Subramanya temple in Haripad. There is a temple in Skandagiri, Secunderabad ,one in Bikkavolu, East Godavari district and one in Mopidevi,Krishna district in the state of Andhra Pradesh. In Karnataka there is the Kukke Subramanya Temple where Lord Murugan is worshiped as the Lord of the serpents. Aaslesha Bali, Sarpa Samskara with nagapathista samarpa are major prayers here.

The key temples in Sri Lanka include the sylvan shrine in Kataragama / (Kadirgamam) or Kathirkamam in the deep south, the temple in Tirukovil in the east, the shrine in Embekke in the Kandyan region and the famed Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna. There are several temples dedicated to Lord Murugan in Malaysia, the most famous being the Batu Caves near Kuala Lumpur. There is a 42.7-m-high statue of Lord Murugan at the entrance to the Batu Caves, which is the largest Lord Murugan statue in the world. Sri Thandayuthapani Temple in Tank Road, Singapore is a major Hindu temple where each year the Thaipusam festival takes place with devotees of Lord Muruga carrying Kavadis seeking penance and blessings of the Lord.

Murugan Temples in America[edit]

In the USA, Shiva Murugan Temple[19] in Concord, Northern California and Murugan Temple of North America[20] in Maryland, Washington DC region are popular. Thaipusam walk for Shiva Murugan Temple in Concord, USA is very pouplar and attracting many devotees from all over America. In Toronto, Canada, Canada Kanthasamy Temple is known amongst many Hindus in Canada. In Dollard-des-Ormeaux, a suburb of the city of Montreal in Canada, there is a monumental temple of Murugan.

Murugan Temples in UK[edit]

In the United Kingdom, Highgate Hill Murugan temple is one of the oldest and most famous. In London, Sri Murugan Temple in Manor park is a well-known temple. In Midlands, Leicester Shri Siva Murugan Temple[21] is gaining popularity recently. Skanda Vale[22] in West Wales was founded by Guruji, a Tamil devotee of Subramaniam, and its primary deity is Lord Murugan.

Murugan Temples in Australia[edit]

In Australia, Sydney Murugan temple in Parramatta (Mays Hill), Perth Bala Muruguan temple in Mandogalup and Kundrathu Kumaran temple in Rockbank, Melbourne are major Hindu temples for all Australian Hindus and Murugan devotees. In New Zealand, there is a Thirumurugan Temple in Auckland and a Kurinji Kumaran Temple in Wellington, both dedicated to Lord Murugan.

Murugan Temples in Eurpoe[edit]

The Sri Sivasubramaniar Temple, located in the Sihl Valley in Adliswil, is the most famous and largest Hindu temple in Switzerland.[23]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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The Full Moon Night of the month of Aswin is known as the Sharad Purnima or Ras Purnima.The festival is also referred as Kaumudi Festival, Kaumudi meaning moonlight. The dazzling night is associated with the divine love filled Raas Lila (Expression of love by graceful dance) of Lord Krishna with Radha and Gopis.This is the night when Krishna would play the Ras Leela the entire night. The day is dedicated to this aspect of Lord Krishna.

The Bhagvad Gita, is recited throughout the night, and the devotees observing a fast keep awake through the night. Next day with the breaking of the fast, the oblations are offered to the personal Godv.Young women may undertake the fast considering Krishna as their consort.

Sharad Poornima is also known as Kojagari Poornima. It is believed that on this night Goddess Lakshmi visits from place to place asking “Kojagari??” meaning “Who is awake” and bless those who are found awake.Hence people don’t sleep this night and spend whole night by playing games, singing and doing all amusing activities.

The showering of Bhakti Raas on the Sharad Poornima night by Krishna on Gopis and Radha has been a main theme for poets and philosophers and still continues to attract the fantasies of common man. The Sharad Poornima night is also seen as the night of love and couples come out at night to face the moon and express their love.

It is also said that the moon is close to the earth on the day and due to this the rays of the moon has several curative properties.

In some regions, Poha, puffed rice, and kheer, sweet, is prepared and left in the moonlight and is consumed later. In some areas, the full moon is not seen directly instead it seen on a vessel filled with boiling milkThe Full Moon Night of the month of Aswin is known as the Sharad Purnima or Ras Purnima.The festival is also referred as Kaumudi Festival, Kaumudi meaning moonlight. The dazzling night is associated with the divine love filled Raas Lila (Expression of love by graceful dance) of Lord Krishna with Radha and Gopis.This is the night when Krishna would play the Ras Leela the entire night. The day is dedicated to this aspect of Lord Krishna.

The Bhagvad Gita, is recited throughout the night, and the devotees observing a fast keep awake through the night. Next day with the breaking of the fast, the oblations are offered to the personal Godv.Young women may undertake the fast considering Krishna as their consort.

Sharad Poornima is also known as Kojagari Poornima. It is believed that on this night Goddess Lakshmi visits from place to place asking “Kojagari??” meaning “Who is awake” and bless those who are found awake.Hence people don’t sleep this night and spend whole night by playing games, singing and doing all amusing activities.

The showering of Bhakti Raas on the Sharad Poornima night by Krishna on Gopis and Radha has been a main theme for poets and philosophers and still continues to attract the fantasies of common man. The Sharad Poornima night is also seen as the night of love and couples come out at night to face the moon and express their love.

It is also said that the moon is close to the earth on the day and due to this the rays of the moon has several curative properties.

In some regions, Poha, puffed rice, and kheer, sweet, is prepared and left in the moonlight and is consumed later. In some areas, the full moon is not seen directly instead it seen on a vessel filled with boiling milk.

At night, Indra on Erawat elephant (white elephant) and Mahalakshmi are worshipped. Puja is performed by lighting lamps, incense sticks, flowers etc. This day, minimum of 100 lamps and maximum of 1 lakh lamps are lighted.

Next day lord Indra is worshiped. Brahmans are offered sugar mixed with ghee and Kheer. Additionally they are given Dhoti etc. clothes, lamps (if possible of gold) and donations. This fast is specially observed for getting Lakshmi (wealth). It is believed, lord Indra and Mata Lakshmi watch that who all are awake. Hence, person observing Jagran gets wealth.

This fast is chiefly observed by ladies. The ones observing fast, draw a Swastika on wooden stool and place an urn of water on it. A glass full of wheat and wheat is kept over it. 13 grains of wheat are taken in hand and the story of fast is heard.

The glass and money are given to the lady narrating the story by touching her feet. Ardhya of water is offered to the moon. After this, food is eaten. There is a tradition of gifting Kheer in temple, on this day. A watermelon is cut into two halves. also, any seasonal fruit and Kheer is kept in the moonlight.
Sharad Poornima is of great significance in Mathura, Braj, Vrindavan and Nathdwara.

Legend:
A moneylender had two daughters. On of them used to complete the fast in a systematic manner and the other used to observe the fast but leave it incomplete. As a result, child born to the 2nd daughter always used to die. Tensed by this situation, the second daughter asked Pandits the reason behind it. Pandits told her that all this was happening because she used to leave the fasts incomplete. They asked her to observe the fast of Sharad Purnima to keep her child alive.

She laid her dead child on a bed and covered him with a cloth. Then, she called her sister and asked her to sit. As the clothes of her elder sister touched the baby, he came back to life. The elder sister scolded her and said that if by chance she would have sat on the baby, he could have died. The 2nd daughter of the moneylender said, “the baby was already dead. He got his life back on getting touched by your clothes.” From that time, tradition of observing the fast of Sharad Purnima is carried on.

This fast is observed for longevity of child and receiving wealth. This day, idol of goddess Lakshami is established and worshipped with Shodashopachara. After fasting for the whole day, 100 lamps of gold, silver and mud are lighted when moon is emerged. Bhajans are sung in the Jagran, at night. Next day morning, idol of Mata Lakshami is handed over to an Acharya.

Gajalaxmi Puja – October 26 (Monday)

The Gajalaxmi Puja is celebrated every year in the month of September October, corresponding to the Hindu Month of Ashwin. The festival is especially known for its significance to unmarried girls and boys. Gajalaxmi Puja also known as Kumar Puja is specifically popular in the state of Orissa.
The main Deities worshipped on this day are the Sun and the Moon. Unmarried girls take an early morning bath, followed by draping new clothes, ornaments and accessories.

In the day time they offer prayers and offerings to the Sun. After following these rituals, they prepare some delicious food-dishes. On an all, this day is extremely important for them and they enjoy in full swing.

Girls can be singing, dancing with traditional songs and colorful clothes. Finally in evening when girls worship the Lunar deity, they break their fast and consume food.

The festival of Gajalaxmi is also associated with the birth of Goddess Laxmi. Many devotees worship Goddess Laxmi in temples and at their homes.
Gajalaxmi Puja
There is a popular belief associated with the Festival that whoever keeps awake during night would seek wealth and prosperity. Devotees are seen keeping awake by playing cards and other engaging indoor games.

The state of Orissa is known for its grand celebration of Gajalaxmi puja. The festival is prominently celebrated in the Dhenkanal district in Orissa. The celebrations start from the full moon day (Purnima) and continues till 11 days.

Mythological Traces:

According to the mythology, “Kumar” or “Kartikeya” was an extremely handsome of Lord Shiva. He was born on the full moon day in the month of Ashwin. Kumar also became popular as the “God of war”. Unmarried girls seek the blessings of Lord Kartikeya to have a handsome life partner in life.
Although the main significance of the day is associated with Lord Kartikeya, but, it’s the Solar and Lunar deity worshipped on this day.

How to Reach?

Dhenkanal:

The head quarter town of the district Dhenkanal is ideally located of National high way No: 42 Connecting Cuttack with Sambalpur. The approach to Dhenkanal district is as follows.

Air:

The nearest airport for approaching the places of interest in the district of Dhenkanal is at Bhubaneswar(99 Km) which is connected with New Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad and Nagpur by boeing flights.

Rail:   Dhenkanal Railway station on S.E. Railway.

Road :

99 km. From Bhubaneswar on N.H. No. 42 Regular bus services connect Dhenkanal with Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Puri, Rourkela, Sambalpur, Raipur, etc.

– See more at: http://www.festivalsofindia.in/gajalaxmi_puja/index.aspx#sthash.QixVEUXw.dpuf

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