Wednesday, June 22, 2011

[PART 11]Dedicated to Mumbai[Bombay]

PART 1A-http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1a-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also_3982.html  

 

           
[PART-2]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html

               
[PART-3]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western_02.html 

          
[PART-4]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/4glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html 

                                                                                                                                                                    
[PART-5]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/dedicated-to-first-city-mumbai-bombay.html            

                                                                                                                                                                    
[PART-6]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6.html

                                                                     
[PART-7]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6-glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html

             
[PART-8]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/7.html 

                                                                   
[PART-9]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/first-anglo-maratha-war-was-first-of.html

           

                                                      

[part-10] http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/bombay-history-of-cinema-1896-and.html

 

[PART12]  MAPS OF BOMBAY 1843 TO 1954http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/maps-of-mumbai-bombay.html


“Indian Modes of Irrigation”1874


*“An Elephant Auction 1875“The Feast of Lanterns at Bombay”*, 1875
“Bombay: The Banquet to Two Thousand Sailors of the Fleet”*, 1876 An Unwelcome Visitor– A Frequent Incident of Anglo-Indian Life”*, from The Graphic, 1879
*“Small Sport in India”*, from The Graphic, 1882


“Young Civilian’s First Year in India”*, 1888The Yule Log in India–Bringing in the Ice”*, from The Graphic, 1889
*“The Morning Ride”*, 1891 Dolce Far Niente: Life in an Indian Bungalow”*, 1896 *“An Indian Railway Station”*, 1854

Sewri  Fort, Bombay, looking across to Trombay Island.  An officer, probably a self portrait, is shown sketching

Pen and ink drawing of Sewri Fort in Bombay looking across to Trombay Island by William Miller (1795-1836) in 1828.The image is inscribed: ‘Suree from below the Band hill. Bandalah. W.M. December 1828’.

Sewri Fort was located on the eastern shore of Parel Island and constructed in 1770. Parel Island, along with Trombay, was one of seven that originally made up the area of Bombay. The artist, William Miller, had a house at Parel. It was located at Vadalla between the towns of Sewri and Matunga. In this view an officer is shown sketching on the left. This figure is probably a self portrait of the artist.

Street in Bombay Fort. 9378

Photograph of a street in the Fort area of Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, by an unknown photographer, from an album of 40 prints taken in the 1860s. Bombay, one of the key cities of India, is a major port, busy manufacturing centre and capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. It extends over a peninsula jutting into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli community built on seven islands, Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it was part of the dowry brought to Charles II of England when he married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. The British built up fortifications around Bombay harbour in the 17th century around the original Portuguese settlement. In the 1760s the fortifications were enhanced as the British were engaged in war with France in both Europe and India. By the 19th century the British had established control over India and the fort walls were torn down and the area converted into the central district of Bombay city.

1883–“THE LUKHMIDAS KHIMJI KAPAD BAZAR “-NEW CLOTH MARKET–BOMBAY–[UPPER RIGHT PICTURE]

BOMBAY-1867–SCREW STEAMER ‘EUPHRATES’ CARRYING BRITISH TROOPS TO INDIA

1866–LAUNCH OF TROOP SHIP -JUMNA-

BOMBAY-1870-VICTORIA RAILWAY TERMINUS—5 PHOTOS OF SAME BUILDING —[SHOWS HORSE DRAWN TRAM BUSES FOR PASSENGERS]An albumen print, c.1870;

A magnificent building, completed in 1888, the Victoria Terminus was named after the then Queen Empress on Jubilee Day, 1887. Construction started in 1878 based on a design by F. W. Stevens, and took 10 years to complete. The cost of construction was Rs. 16.14 lakhs (Rs. 1.614 million). The railway station was opened to the public on New Year’s Day, 1882. It is now the starting point of the Central Railways.

Built in the Victorian Gothic Revival style, based on Italian Gothic models, the complicated ground plan of the building is counterpointed by marvellous filigrees, carvings and arches. The south-western part of the building is topped by a dome holding up a statue of Progress. It is an early example of a uniquely Bombay style of architecture which emerged when British architects worked with Indian craftsmen to include Indian architectural tradition and idioms.

When the building was first used it held not only railway functionaries such as the accounts, chief engineer and traffic manager but also other municipal offices such as the superintendent of the police. Curiously, railway tickets were also printed in the same building. The number of people working here rose for almost a hundred years. In the 1980’s the Railways began to lighten the load on the structure. It presently holds over 700 employees of the Central Railway.

another view, c.1880’s*OF SAME BUILDING:-

A collotype print, c.1900, by Clifton & Co.:-

*Victoria Terminus and its streetscape, 1908*

A modern visitor’s photo













The Victoria Terminus was renamed Chhatrapati Sivaji Terminus on March 4, 1996. In September 1999 pedestrian access to the suburban railway terminus was moved underground. The subway was built at the incredible cost of Rs. 15 crores (Rs. 150 million).
This building has long been on the urban heritage list and a protected monument. It was put on theUNESCO World Heritage List on July 2, 2004. It is the first functional administrative building to be put on this list.

BOMBAY-1675-PEOPLE AND BUSINESS

In 1661, the islands of Bombay passed to the British Crown, when Charles II married Catherine of Braganza. However, the Portuguese garrison in Bassein refused to part with the islands of Salsette, Parel, Worli and Mazagaon.1700 Map

Proceeding roughly south to north, the seven islands ceded by the Portuguese to the British were

  1. Colaba: whose name is a corruption of the Koliname Kolbhat.
  2. Old Woman’s Island: (alternatively, Old Man’s Island) a small rock between Colaba and Bombay, whose name is a corruption of the Arabic name Al-Omani, after the deep-sea fishermen who ranged up to the Gulf of Oman.
  3. Bombay: the main harbour and the nucleus of the British fort from which the modern city grew; it stretched from Dongri on the east to Malabar Hill on the west.
  4. Mazagaon: a Koli settlement to the east of Bombay island was seperated from it by Umarkhadi andPydhonie.
  5. Worli: north of Bombay was seperated from it by the Great Breach, which extended westwards almost to Dongri.
  6. Parel: North of Mazagaon and called by many other names, including Matunga, Dharavi and Sion. The original population was predominantly Koli.
  7. Mahim: to the west of Parel and north of Worli, took its name from the Mahim river and was the capital of a 13th century kingdom founded by Raja Bhimdev.
This list does not exhaust all the islands that have merged into the modern city of Bombay. In particular,Salsette, the large northern island which remained under Portuguese control till 1739, is not counted among these seven.

British soldiers captured these islands only in 1665, and a treaty was signed in the manor house on the island of Bombay.

The British East India Company received it from the crown in 1668 for the sum of 10 pounds a year, payable every September 30. Sir George Oxenden, then President of the factory in Surat, became the first Governor of Bombay. The Company immediately set about the task of opening up the islands by constructing a quay and warehouses. A customs house was also built. Fortifications were made around the manor house, now renamed Bombay Castle. A Judge-Advocate was appointed for the purpose of civil administration. Sir George died in 1669.
Gerald Aungier was appointed the President of the Surat factory and Governor of Bombay in 1672, and remained at this post till 1675. He offered various inducement to skilled workers and traders to set up business in the new township. As a result, a large number of Parsis, Armenian, Bohras, Jews, Gujarati banias from Surat and Diu and Brahmins from Salsette came to Bombay. The population of Bombay was estimated to have risen from 10,000 in 1661 to 60,000 in 1675.
The first four governors held Bombay for the Crown:-

1 Abraham Shipman 19 March 1662 October 1664 2
2 Humphrey Cooke February 1665 5 November 1666 1 Acting
3 Gervase Lucas 5 November 1666 21 May 1667 1
4 Henry Gary 22 May 1667 23 September 1668 1 Acting
1 George Oxeden 23 September 1668 14 July 1669 1
2 Matthew Gray 14 July 1669 7 June 1672 3 Acting
3 Gerald Aungier 7 June 1672 30 June 1677 5
4 Henry Oxenden 30 June 1677 27 October 1681 4
5 John Child 27 October 1681 27 December 1683 2
6 Richard Keigwin 27 December 1683 19 November 1684 1 Acting
7 Charles Zinzan 19 November 1684 1685 1 Acting
8 John Wyborne 1685 2 May 1687 2 Acting
9 John Child 2 May 1687 4 Feb 1690 3
10 Bartholomew Harris 4 February 1690 10 May 1694 4
11 Daniel Annesley 10 May 1694 17 May 1694 Acting
12 John Gayer 17 May 1694 November 1704 10
Gerald Aungier established the first mint in Bombay. In 1670 the Parsi businessman Bhimjee Parikh imported the first printing press into Bombay.

Aungier planned extensive fortifications from Dongri in the north to Mendham’s Point (near present day Lion Gate) in the south. However, these walls were only built in the beginning of the 18th century. The harbour was also developed, with space for the berthing of 20 ships. In 1686, the Company shifted its main holdings from Surat to Bombay.
During the Portuguese occupation, Bombay exported only coir and coconuts. With the coming of many Indian and British merchants, Bombay’s trade developed. Soon it was trading in salt, rice, ivory, cloth, lead and sword blades with many Indian ports as well as with Mecca and Basra.

                                                         BOMBAY -The Parsis

GUJARAT …

Some Zoroastrian Persians migrated to India after the fall of the Sassanian Empire, and gave rise to the modern Indian Parsi community. According to a chronicle written in the 17th century, the Kissah-i-Sanjan, the Parsis first came to India in the 8th century. They landed in Diu, and were later given refuge in Sanjan (Gujarat) by the local king, Jadi Rana. Five years after this they built the first fire temple, Atash Behram, to shelter the holy fire rescued from Iran.
Over the years this community accultured to the new land. Gujarati became the native language of the community and the sari the garment of the women. However the Parsis preserved their separate cultural and religious identity.
Towards the end of the 10th century, the Parsis began to settle in other parts of Gujarat. This gave rise to difficulties in defining the limits of priestly jurisdiction, which were resolved in 1290 AD by the establishment of five panthaks or districts–
Sanjan,
The main cave at Bahrot
The Dakhma Mound at Sanjan
Structures and Ringwells at Sanjan
The Bahrot Fort wall
 
Nausari,
NAVSARI PARSEE FIRE TEMPLE
Godareh-Ankleswar, Broach and Cambay.
Late in the 15th century Sanjan was attacked by a Muslim army, probably a war of conquest by the sixth Sultan of Gujarat. The Parsis supported the local Hindu king with 1400 men, and were annihilated. The survivors fled with the holy fire, which was installed in Nausari in 1516. Later, due to disputes between priests, it was transferred and came to its present location in
 
Udvada in 1742.
 
Iranshah Atashbehram in Udwada - Kuwait Zoroastrain Association(KZA)
 
BHUJ AGIARY

… BOMBAY

fire-temple
Parparsisi Fire Temple, Bombay.
Parsi fire temple Bombay

 

From the 16th century, Surat became a major centre of trade, and more and more Parsis migrated to this town. The newly arrived European traders preferred to conduct business through this community, since their status as a minority gave them the necessary flexibility in their new role as brokers. The first record of a Parsi, Dorabji Nanabhai, 
settling in Bombay dates from 1640.
After 1661, when Bombay passed to the British, there was a concerted effort to bring artisans and traders to settle in the new town. Aungier wrote a letter to the Factor in Surat on November 21, 1647
to invite as many weavers as possible, … whereinto you will promise them such priviledges, immunities, and exemptions from publique duties as they shall reasonably desire from you..
 
{PLEASE NOTE:-PEOPLE WERE ASKED TO COME AND SETTLE IN BOMBAY COMPARED TO TODAYS NARROW POLITICS OF ATTACKING SO CALLED OUTSIDERS}
A large part of the Parsi migrants to Bombay in these years was constituted of weavers and other artisans. In 1673, the British handed over a piece of land in Malabar Hill to the Parsi community for the establishment of their first Dakhma
 
Tower of Silence.
Parsi Tower Of Silence Picture
 
In 1735 Lowjee Nusserwanji, a master shipbuilder, was granted land in Bombay by the East India Company. He took the name of his trade, Wadia, and moved into the developing town

{Lowji Nusserwanji Wadia – the shipbuilder from Surat


It has been said that it was not the British merchant but the Parsi shipbuilder who was the real creator of Bombay. In 1736, East India Company officials, very impressed with the work of a young Parsi foreman in their Surat dockyard, invited him to Bombay, with ten of his carpenters, to build the Bombay shipyard. Lowji Nusserwanji Wadia came to Bombay and put in fifty years of service, at a salary of forty rupees a month, handing down his skills to his sons and grandsons. For many decades, it was the success of the shipyards alone that persuaded the East India Company to keep this otherwise expensive settlement going.
The Wadias made ships of Malabar teak for an international clientele. Their Bombay Frigates were ordered by the British Admiralty and used in the Battle of Trafalgar. One of their ships sailed the world for years with the following message carved on her kelson by the chief shipwright, Jamshetji Wadia, “This ship was built by a d—-d Black Fellow AD 1800.” The Wadias weren’t the only stars in the Parsi firmament. Parsi entrepreneurs began springing up in every direction, attempting new professions and being enormously successful. It is said that the Bombay of those days was a level playing field where there were fortunes to be made, caste, colour, creed, no bar; though in the colour-conscious world of British India, it could not have hurt to be light-skinned like some Parsis.}


 Incidentally, the Wadias built the ship Minden, on board which Francis Scott Key composed the US national anthem “Star Spangled Banner”.
 
In 1780, 9.2% of the population of Bombay were Parsis. A first wave of migration followed a famine in Gujarat in 1790. By 1812 the number of Parsis in Bombay had quadrupled. In 1837, a second large wave of migrations to Bombay followed a huge fire in Surat. Today, more than 70% of all Parsis live in Bombay.
 
he Parsis are intimately connected with the history of Bombay. The cotton boom was largely fuelled by Parsi entrepreneurs. The oldest newspaper in Bombay, “Bombay Samachar”, was run by Parsis.Congress stalwarts like


Dadabhai Naoroji, 
Click to see an enlarged picture
 
 To educate the British public and to fight for Indian rights, in 1892 he stood for elections to the British House of Commons as a liberal from Central Finsbury. He won by three votes and his constituents nicknamed him ‘Mr Narrow Majority’. He was the first Indian to beat the British at their own game. The conservative press did their best to stir up racial prejudice against him.
Central Finsbury should be ashamed of itself at having publicly confessed that there was not in the whole of the Division an Englishman, a Scotsman, a Welshman, or an Irishman as worthy of their votes as this fire-worshipper from BombaY
Pherozeshah Mehta 
Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, KCIE (August 4, 1845 – November 5, 1915) was an Parsi Indian political leader, activist, and a leading lawyer, who was knighted by then British Government in India for his service to the law. His political ideology was, as was the case with most of the Indian leaders of his time, moderate and was hence not directly opposed to the crown’s sovereignty but only demanded more autonomy for Indians to self-rule.
He became the Municipal commissioner of Bombay Municipality in 1873 and its President four times – 1884, 1885, 1905 and 1911.


Madame Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) our radical firebrand, was exiled from India and Britain and lived in France. Bhikaiji was a tireless propagandist for Indian Independence. Russian comrades used to call her India’s Joan of Arc. Lenin reportedly invited her to reside in Russia but she did not accept the invitation.44
          In 1907, she addressed an audience of 1,000 Germans at the Stuttgart Conference. After her impassioned speech she unfurled a flag, a tricolour, which became, with some changes, India’s national flag forty years later. As her activities grew more radical the British requested the French to extradite her. The French refused. In 1936, alone and seriously ill, wishing to die in her own country she petitioned the British government to be allowed to return home. Her request was granted, provided she sign what she had refused to all her life; a statement promising she would take no part in politics. She returned to Bombay and after an illness of eight months, died lonely, forgotten and unsung in the Parsi General Hospital.
ame Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) our radical firebrand, was exiled from India and Britain and lived in France. Bhikaiji was a tireless propagandist for Indian Independence. Russian comrades used to call her India’s Joan of Arc. Lenin reportedly invited her to reside in Russia but she did not accept the invitation.44
In 1907, she addressed an audience of 1,000 Germans at the Stuttgart Conference. After her impassioned speech she unfurled a flag, a tricolour, which became, with some changes, India’s national flag forty years later. As her activities grew more radical the British requested the French to extradite her. The French refused. In 1936, alone and seriously ill, wishing to die in her own country she petitioned the British government to be allowed to return home. Her request was granted, provided she sign what she had refused to all her life; a statement promising she would take no part in politics. She returned to Bombay and after an illness of eight months, died lonely, forgotten and unsung in the Parsi General Hospital.
 
 Dinshaw Wacha
See full size image
Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (1844-1936) was a Parsi Indian politician from Bombay. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress, and its President in 1901.
He was President of the Indian Merchants’ Chamber in 1915.
TATA

Even the physical shape of Bombay was determined by donations to build causeways, roads and buildings by members of theJeejeebhoy his first voyage to China (1800)to trade in cotton and opium.

Sir JJ as he was
known , was one of India’s greatest philanthropists
Sketch of Jejeebhoy, 1857
An essentially self-made man, having experienced the miseries of poverty in early life, Jejeebhoy developed great sympathy for his poorer countrymen, and in his later life was occupied with alleviating human distress in all its forms. Parsi and Christian, Hindu and Muslim, were alike the objects of his beneficence. Hospitals, schools, homes of charity and pension funds throughout India (particularly in Mumbai,
Jejeebhoy donated to at least 126 notable public charities, including the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, the Sir J. J. College of Architecture, the Sir J.J. Institute of Applied Art and the Seth R.J.J. High School. He also endowed charities dedicated to helping his fellow Parsis and created the “Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy Parsi Benevolent Fund”.
Mahim Causeway: the British Government had refused to build a causeway to connect the island of Salsette to Mumbai. Jejeebhoy’s wife Avabai Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy spent 1,55,800 rupees to finance its construction, naming it after his wife Avabai. The work began in the year 1841 and is believed to have been completed 4 years late
File:Residence of Jejeebhoy.jpg
The Illustrated London News print of Jejeebhoy’s residence, 1858
The fifth Baronet, Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy at home. The first Baronet, Sir JJ as he was
known , was one of India’s greatest philanthropists. Schools, colleges, hospitals, still
bear his name. Bombay 1984.
and Readymoney families.
Sir Cowasji Jehangir ReadymoneyCSI (1812–1878)
Fountain erected by Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney in Regent’s Park, London
SIR COWASJI JEHANGIR READYMONEY (1812-1878), “the Peabody of Bombay.”  Readymoney (first to loan money to the British).Early in the 18th century three Parsee brothers moved from Nowsari, near Surat, in Gujarat, to Bombay, and became the pioneers of a lucrative trade with China. They gained the sobriquet of “Readymoney,” which they adopted as a surname. Only Hirji Jewanji Readymoney left issue, two daughters, the elder of whom married a Banaji, and the younger a Dady Sett. The son of the former, Jehangir Hirji, married Mirbae, the daughter of the latter, and was made the heir not only of his grandfather, but of his two granduncles. The younger of their two sons was Cowasji Jehangir. His only English education was at the then well-known school kept by Serjeant Sykes in the Fort of Bombay. At the age of 15 he entered the firm of Duncan, Gibb & Co. as “godown keeper,” or warehouse clerk. In 1837 he was promoted to the responsible and lucrative appointment of “guarantee broker” to two of the leading European firms of Bombay. In 1846 he was able to begin trading on his own account. He was made a J.P. for the town and island of Bombay, and a member of the board of conservancy; and in 1866 was appointed a commissioner of income tax, his tactful management being largely responsible for the fact that this tax, then new to Bombay and unpopular, was levied with unexpected financial success. He was made C.S.I. in 1871; and in 1872 he was created a Knight Bachelor of the United Kingdom, and his statue, by T. Woolner, R. A., was erected in the town hall. His donations to the institutions of Bombay amounted to close on £ 200,000. His health broke down in 1871, and he died in 1878, being succeeded by his son, Sir J. Cowasji Jehangir [Readymoney],


 who was created a Knight Bachelor in 1895, and a Baronet in 1908.

                                    1887 Queen’S Jubilee Bombay

1874-CROSSING RIVER-INDIANS AND ENGLISH MAN WITH FAMILY – HORSE POWER

Bombay 1881-VIEW FROM MALABAR HILL?was possibly taken looking east from Cumbala Hill.

Bombay 1881.
Panorama of Fort, Bombay


Bombay, one of the key cities of India, is a major port on the west coast of India, a busy manufacturing centre and the capital of Maharashtra. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli community built on seven islands, land reclamation formed a peninsula jutting into the Arabian Sea, over which the city extends. By the 14th century, Bombay was controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it passed to Charles II of England through his marriage to the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. The British built fortifications around Bombay harbour in the 17th century to surround the original Portuguese settlement, and in the 1760s the fortifications were enhanced as the British were engaged in war with France in both Europe and India. By the 19th century the British had established control over India and the fort walls were torn down and the area converted into the central district of Bombay city. The removal of the ramparts of the fort opened up the city to new developments in architecture, and in the second half of the 19th century building activity was accelerated, fuelled by its booming maritime trade. A collection of public buildings sprang up on the Esplanade and in the city centre. This photograph looks eastwards from the Rabajai Tower towards ships in the harbour, with St Thomas’s Cathedral and the Elphinstone Circle in the centre, and the Town Hall in the background.


Cotton stores, Bombay.-Date: 1855-Photographer: Johnson and Henderson

Cotton stores, Bombay.

A photograph of a view of a cotton warehouse, Bombay from the ‘Vibart Collection of Views in South India’ taken by an unknown photographer about 1855.Before the mid 19th Century, India used to export cotton to Britain, and then reimport cloth. The impetus towards the founding of a cotton industry came from Indian entrepreneurs; the first mill, ‘The Bombay Spinning Mill’, was opened in 1854 in Bombay by Cowasji Nanabhai Davar. Opposition from the Lancashire mill owners was eventually offset by the support of the British manufacturers of textile machinery. Cotton exports from India took off during the American Civil War, when supplies from the USA were interrupted.

A view at Calbadavie [Bombay].




Photograph of Kalbadevi, Bombay from ‘Views in the island of Bombay’ by Charles Scott,1850s. The area of Kalbadevi was named after the shrine dedicated to the goddess Kali in this area. In the 18th and 19th century, Hindu immigrants from Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Marwar moved to Bombay to escape famine and drought in their homelands and settle in Bombay, where there was economic growth and prosperity. Kalbadevi was one of the areas where they settled. Some of the houses drew inspiration from Gujarat or Rajasthan, the areas where the residents came from. Kalbadevi was also a busy commercial centre with the Gujarati and Marwari Jewellers conducting their business and as a centre for trade in cotton and metals.

Lithographer: Miller, William (1795-1836)
Medium: Lithograph, coloured
Date: 1828

Coloured lithograph of a church and temple in Bassein Fort by William Miller (1795-1836) in 1828. Bassein (Vasai) is situated at the mouth of the Ulhas River north of Bombay. In 1534, the Portuguese seized Bassein from Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, and the town remained in their control for just over 200 years. At the height of its prosperity, Bassein had 5 convents and 13 churches. In 1739, Bassein was taken by the Marathas. In 1802, the British secured the Treaty of Bassein with Peshwa Baji Rao II, which allowed British forces to be stationed in Maratha territory.

Inscribed on reverse: 'Bombay Esplanade from our Tents. March 1870'.

Artist: Lester, John Frederick (1825-1915)
Medium: Watercolour
Date: 1870

Water-colour painting of the Esplanade at Mumbai by John Frederick Lester (1825-1915) in March 1870. This image is from an allum of watercolours made between 1865 and 1877 in Kathiawar, Bombay, Poona, Mahabaleshwar and Savantvadi State.

Originally, Mumbai (Bombay) was composed of seven islands separated by a marshy swamp. Its deep natural harbour led the Portuguese settlers of the 16th Century to call it Bom Bahia (the Good Bay). The British Crown acquired the islands in 1661when Catherine of Braganza married Charles II, as part of her marriage dowry. It was then presented to the East India Company in 1668. The second governor, Gerald Aungier, developed Bombay into a trading port and centre for commerce and inducements were offered to skilled workers and traders to move here. European merchants and shipbuilders from western India were encouraged to settle here and Mumbai soon became a bustling cosmopolitan town.

Mortar shed [Victoria Dock construction, Bombay].A photograph of interior view of shed with stone crushing machinery on the site of the newly constructed docks at Bombay. The first of the sheds was begun in August 1887 and by the end of the year sheds and warehouses occupied an area exceeding five acres.

Carnac Road Bombay 1881.–Photographer: Dayal, Deen Medium: Photographic print Date: 1880

Carnac Road Bombay 1881.

Photograph of Carnac Road, Bombay from the Macnabb Collection (Col James Henry Erskine Reid): Album of Miscellaneous views, taken by Deen Dayal in the 1880s. This is a view looking up Carnac Road with the Crawford Market on the left. Carnac Road was renamed Lokmanya Tilak Road. The busy port and industrial hub of Bombay is the capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. Extending over a peninsula into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India, Bombay prospered with maritime trade and became the chief commercial centre of the Arabian Sea. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli community built on seven islands, Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it was part of the dowry brought to Charles II of England when he married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. By the 19th century, the British were in control of India and they embarked on a programme of building commensurate with their power and primacy. Bombay burgeoned over the decades and boasted a skyscape of colonial architecture.











Work-box makers, Bombay


Photograph of work-box makers at Bombay in Maharashtra, taken by an unknown photographer in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of Indian Collections. The three box makers are shown with examples of their trade, including carved and inlaid boxes and an album cover. A certificate of honorable mention awarded to Framjee Heerjeebhoy at the Paris Exhibition of 1867 is placed in the centre of the photograph. This photograph was probably shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 where Framjee Heerjeebhoy sent many examples of his work. The work exhibited included ivory inlaid inkstands, portfolios, cribbage boards, pocket books and watch cases. He also sent carved sandalwood and ebony work as well as album covers and glove boxes adorned with Delhi pictures, pocket books, paper cutters and watch stands.


Church Gate Street, Bombay.
This view of Churchgate Street, now known as Vir Nariman Road, in the Fort area of Bombay was taken in the 1860s to form part of an album entitled ‘Photographs of India and Overland Route’. Churchgate Street runs from Horniman Circle at the east end to what was originally named Marine Drive at the edge of the Back Bay. Churchgate Station, the old General Post Office (now the Telegraph Office) and the Cathedral Church of St Thomas, the oldest still-functioning structure in the city, are all located along its length. However, Churchgate Station and the Post Office were later additions to the street and would not have been in existence at the time of this photograph.


Coloured lithograph of the Government House at Parel in Bombay by Day & Son after Sir Harry Francis Colville Darrell (1814-1853) from his ‘China, India and the Cape’ published in London in 1852. Parel, originally an island, is located in the northern part of Bombay. The building shown in this view was built by the Jesuits under Portuguese rule in the 16th and 17th centuries. It was used as a country retreat for the English Governor of Bombay from 1719. In 1829, the building officially became the Government House. However, in the 1880s the Government House was relocated to Malabar Point.




Byculla Club, Bombay. 254311


A photograph of the Byculla Club, Bombay from the ‘Vibart Collection of Views in South India’ taken by an unknown photographer about 1855.The Byculla Club opened in 1833, the first of Bombay’s residential clubs serving the British residents of the prosperous and elegant suburb of Byculla. It was turned into a hospital during the First World War and was eventually sold in the 1920s.






Government House, Parell.–Artist: Gonsalves, Jose M. (fl. 1826–c. 1842) Medium: Lithograph, coloured Date: 1833

Government House, Parell.



Plate two from J. M. Gonsalves’ “Views at Bombay”. This building at Parel in Bombay was originally a Portuguese Franciscan friary, completed in 1673 and taken over by Governor Boone in 1719 as a country residence. In 1771, when Hornby first resided here, it became the new Government House in place of the original one in the Fort area. The banqueting hall and ballroom were housed in the shell of the original vaulted chapel. In 1899 the Plague Research Laboratory founded by W M Haffkine was established here. Since 1925 it has been known as the Haffkine Institute and the original grounds now contain a number of medical institutions.

['Times of India'] Building, corner of Elphinstone Cir. - 1880 - Genl. Nassau Lees, Proprietor.
General view of the exterior of the Times of India offices, Mumbai by E.O.S. and Company, 1890. This print is from an album put together for the occasion of the newspaper’s Diamond Jubilee (60 years) which was celebrated in November 1898. The newspaper was established in the 1830s following Lord Metcalfe’s Act of 1835 which removed restrictions on the liberty of the Indian press. On the 3rd November 1838 the ‘Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce’ was launched in bi-weekly editions, on Saturdays and Wednesdays. It contained news of Europe, America and the sub-continent and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steam ships. From 1850 the paper appeared in daily editions and in 1861 the ‘Bombay Times’ became the ‘Times of India’. By the end of the 19th century the paper employed 800 people and had a wide circulation in India and Europe.



 below-Post haste[email of last century-PIGEON POST]

image
India, Pigeon Post Collection, 1931-41.

Soldier with message and carrier pigeon during World War I.

Pigeons with messages attached.

For thousands of years they were the worlds’ fastest means of communicationCount Rothschild benefited financially when knew of Napoleon’s defeat long before any other persons in England, thanks to a swift personal message. One critical message traveled 20 miles in 20 minutes and this speedy delivery saved 150 British troops from disaster by less than five minutes. But in 1851, German-born Paul Julius Reuter opened an office in the City of London which transmitted stock market quotationsbetween London and Paris via the new Dover-Calais cable, and the days of pigeon post as a means of quick and reliable message transfer passed with the implementation of wire-based communications. Reuter had previously used pigeons to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until a gap in the telegraph link was closed. One of the last large-scale use of carrier pigeons ended in 2002, when India retired its Police Pigeon Service, opting for email and telephone to access remote areas. Contrary to appearances, this was not the end of the pigeon post.When it comes to tough terrain and limited to no wired or wireless access, homing pigeons provide a quick answer to data transfer
POst men running with postal articles 1850’s picture[ called dawk wallah by english men ;Scinde Dawk was a very old postal system of runners that served the Sindh, The term also refers to the first postage stamps in india the forerunners of the adhesive stamps used throughout India]
Darius extended the network of roads across the Persian empire, to enable both troops and information to move with startling speed. At the centre of the system is the royal road from Susa to Sardis, a distance of some 2000 miles (3200 km). At intervals of a day’s ride there are posting stations, where new men and fresh horses will be available at any moment to carry a document on through the next day’s journey.By this method a message can travel the full distance of the road in ten days, at a speed of about 200 miles a day.other methods of communications in the past were [1]’message whistling’ of canary islands[2] ‘tom tom’ messages by drum beats,[3]fire signal by south american indians[4] smoke signals by north american indians


India postage 1930 – SHOWS THE ‘Dak runner’
pigeon post during world war 1





















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